Ongoing challenges in the management of malaria. Journal Article


Author: Gilbert Kokwaro
Article Title: Ongoing challenges in the management of malaria.
Keywords: PLASMODIUM falciparum; MALARIA -- Prevention; DISEASE management; VECTOR control; INSECTICIDES
Journal Title: Malaria Journal
Volume: 8
ISSN: 14752875
Publisher: BioMed Central  
Date Published: 2009-01-02
Start Page: 1
End Page: 6
DOI/URL:
Notes: --- - Article - This article gives an overview of some of the ongoing challenges that are faced in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of malaria. Malaria causes approximately 881,000 deaths every year, with nine out of ten deaths occurring in sub-Saharan Africa. In addition to the human burden of malaria, the economic burden is vast. It is thought to cost African countries more than US$12 billion every year in direct losses. However, great progress in malaria control has been made in some highly endemic countries. Vector control is assuming a new importance with the significant reductions in malaria burden achieved using combined malaria control interventions in countries such as Zanzibar, Zambia and Rwanda. The proportion of patients treated for malaria who have a confirmed diagnosis is low in Africa compared with other regions of the world, with the result that anti-malarials could be used to treat patients without malaria, especially in areas where progress has been made in reducing the malaria burden and malaria epidemiology is changing. Inappropriate administration of anti-malarials could contribute to the spread of resistance and incurs unnecessary costs. Parasite resistance to almost all commonly used anti-malarials has been observed in the most lethal parasite species, Plasmodium falciparum. This has presented a major barrier to successful disease management in malaria-endemic areas. ACT (artemisinin-based combination therapy) has made a significant contribution to malaria control and to reducing disease transmission through reducing gametocyte carriage. Administering ACT to infants and small children can be difficult and time consuming. Specially formulating anti-malarials for this vulnerable population is vital to ease administration and help ensure that an accurate dose is received. Education of health-workers and communities about malaria prevention, diagnosis and treatment is a vital component of effective case management, especially as diagnostic policies change. Preventing resistance emerging to both ACT and insecticides used in vector control remains an ongoing challenge in an era of changing malaria epidemiology. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] - Copyright of Malaria Journal is the property of BioMed Central and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.) - ! 'Accession Number: 59354199; Gilbert Kokwaro 1; Email Address: Director@cnhrkenya.org; Affiliation: 1: Consortium for National Health Research (CNHR), Nairobi, Kenya.; Source Info: 2009 Supplement 1, Vol. 8, p1; Subject Term: MALARIA -- Prevention; Subject Term: DISEASE management; Subject Term: PLASMODIUM falciparum; Subject Term: VECTOR control; Subject Term: INSECTICIDES; NAICS/Industry Codes: 418390 Agricultural chemical and other farm supplies merchant wholesalers; NAICS/Industry Codes: 325320 Pesticide and Other Agricultural Chemical Manufacturing; NAICS/Industry Codes: 115110 Support activities for crop production; Number of Pages: 6p; Illustrations: 1 Graph; Document Type: Article'
SU Authors
  1. Prof. Gilbert Kokwaro
    26 Kokwaro